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Satellite Constellation

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1Satellite  Constellation Empty Satellite Constellation Tue Jan 03, 2023 8:16 am



<P><p><div><p>A <a href="">satellite constellation</a> is a group of artificial satellites working together as a system. Unlike a single satellite, a constellation can provide permanent global or near-global coverage, such that at any time everywhere on Earth at least one satellite is visible. Satellites are typically placed in sets of complementary orbital planes and connect to globally distributed ground stations. They may also use inter-satellite communication. <a href="">satellite constellation</a>s should not be confused with satellite clusters, which are groups of satellites moving very close together in almost identical orbits (see satellite formation flying), satellite programs (such as Landsat), which are generations of satellites launched in succession, and satellite fleets, which are groups of satellites from the same manufacturer or operator that function independently from each other (not as a system).</p></P><P><img src="" style="margin:10px auto"></P><P><p><b> Other Related Knowledge of<a href="">satellite constellation</a></b></p><p>------</p><p><b>Yamal (<a href="">satellite constellation</a>)</b></p><p>Yamal (Russian: ) is a communication and broadcasting system developed and operated by Gazprom Space Systems. Born out of the connectivity needs of the natural gas extraction giant Gazprom, the system was spun off in its own company, and opened the network to third parties and even went into the public broadcasting industry. Yamal and RSCC's Ekspress constellation are the only two national satellite operators in Russia. .</p></P><P><img src="" style="margin:10px auto"></P><P><p>------</p><p><b>Iridium <a href="">satellite constellation</a></b></p><p>The Iridium system requires 66 active satellites in orbit to complete its constellation and spare satellites are kept in-orbit to serve in case of failure. The satellites are in six polar low Earth orbital planes at a height of approximately 485 miles (780 km). Satellites communicate with neighboring satellites via Ka band intersatellite links to relay communications to and from ground stations. The original constellation was launched in the late 1990s before the company went through bankruptcy. In January 2017, Iridium began launch next-generation satellites through its $3 billion launch campaign, Iridium NEXT. The new satellites were sent into space on SpaceX Falcon 9 launch vehicles from Vandenberg AFB Space Launch Complex 4 in California over the course of eight launches between January 2017 and January 2019. On January 14, 2017, SpaceX launched 10 of the new Iridium satellites into orbit. The second launch of Iridium NEXT satellites took place on June 25, 2017 on a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket out of Vandenberg Air Force Base. This was the second of eight scheduled launches. The third launch of 10 NEXT satellites took place on October 9, 2017. On December 22, 2017, ten additional satellites were deployed after a successful launch on a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket. On May 22, SpaceX successfully launched an additional five Iridium NEXT satellites from Vandenberg Air Force Base. On January 11, 2019, the final ten satellites were placed in orbit by SpaceX.</p><p>------</p><p><b>JSAT (<a href="">satellite constellation</a>)</b></p><p>The JSAT constellation is a communication and broadcasting <a href="">satellite constellation</a> formerly operated by JSAT Corporation and currently by SKY Perfect JSAT Group. It has become the most important commercial constellation in Japan, and fifth in the world. It has practically amalgamated all private satellite operators in Japan, with only B-SAT left as a local competitor.[non-primary source needed] JSAT began in 1985, with the opening by the Government of Japan, of the communication markets in Japan and the founding of Japan Communications Satellite Company, Satellite Japan Corporation, Space Communications Corporation. It grew by own investment, mergers and acquisitions of the parent companies. As of August 2016, it includes the fleets of three previously mentioned companies, Horizons Satellite and NTT DoCoMo and the DSN military network.</p><p>------</p><p><b><a href="">satellite constellation</a></b></p><p>The Argos System is currently served by 7 polar orbiting satellites at an altitude of 850 km and completes a revolution around earth approximately every 100 minutes. At a vantage point of 850 km, satellites cover approximately 5000 km of earth at any given time. Each satellite was intended to be sun synchronous, with passes almost at the same solar time each day. Although due to the age of some satellites, minor drifting does occur. Due to the <a href="">satellite constellation</a>s polar orbit, 100% of the earth is covered by the Argos System. Since pass overlap increase with latitude, the number of daily passes over a transmitter also increase with latitude.</p><p>------</p><p><b>A-train (<a href="">satellite constellation</a>)</b></p><p>The A-train (from Afternoon Train) is a <a href="">satellite constellation</a> of four Earth observation satellites of varied nationality in sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 705 km (438 mi) above the Earth. The orbit, at an inclination of 98.14, crosses the equator each day at around 1:30 pm solar time, giving the constellation its name (the "A" stands for "afternoon") and crosses the equator again on the night side of the Earth, at around 1:30 am. They are spaced a few minutes apart from each other so their collective observations may be used to build high-definition three-dimensional images of Earth's atmosphere and surface.</p></div></p></P>

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